Counterflow-Induced Inverse Energy Cascade in Three-Dimensional Superfluid Turbulence


Finite-temperature quantum turbulence is often described in terms of two immiscible fluids that can flow with a nonzero-mean relative velocity. Such out-of-equilibrium state is known as counterflow superfluid turbulence. We report here the emergence of a counterflow-induced inverse energy cascade in three-dimensional superfluid flows by performing extensive numerical simulations of the Hall-Vinen-Bekarevich-Khalatnikov model. As the intensity of the mean counterflow is increased, an abrupt transition, from a fully three-dimensional turbulent flow to a quasi-two-dimensional system exhibiting a split cascade, is observed. The findings of this work could motivate new experimental settings to study quasi-two-dimensional superfluid turbulence in the bulk of three-dimensional experiments. They might also find applications beyond superfluids in systems described by more than one fluid component.

Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 254504 (2020)